Students can do various types of projects in our lab. We supervise bachelor and master internship projects but you can also find supervisors for your literature thesis. Practical internships can be in the wetlab (here termed experimental) , can be computational (here termed theorical) or can consist of a combination of those two. All of them qualify as ‘research internships’ in virtually all of the study programmes.
Below is a list of projects that we thought of. If you are interested in one, just contact the person that is associated to that project. But there are options beyond this list. Check the Team page and click on the different team members to see their lines of research. If you are interested in a specific topic that we work on, but do not see an internship within that project listed below, just contact the team member and check for the possibilities. This is especially relevant if you are looking for a literature thesis project – these are usually tailor-made based on your interests.
If you have general questions about internships in our department see the contact information at the end of the page
|Project title||Type of research||Supervisor(s)|
|Bioremediation of oil contaminated mangrove forests||Experimental (Master)||Paul Iturbe Espinoza
|Shell uses land farming to clean up sites impacted by oil spills. Land farming reduces the concentration of petroleum constituents present in soils through processes associated with bioremediation. In sensitive ecosystems, such as mangroves, traditional remediation methodologies such as land farming can be particularly difficult due the soft ground conditions and sensitive nature of vegetation. In those types of environments, removal of surficial oil and gentle flushing of sediments to remove free oil can be effective in reducing oil concentrations. Any residual oil is further reduced by biodegradation to a level where mangrove vegetation can recover. The rate at which the biodegradation occurs is an important factor in the restoration of the mangrove ecosystem but relatively few data are available on this. Also, while it is widely acknowledged that microorganisms play an important role in the breakdown, linking rates to microbial community composition and other abiotic factors is very hard.
The objective of this MSc research project is to increase the understanding biodegradation processes in mangroves, both in terms of kinetics, involved micro-organisms and contributing abiotic factors. Shell can provide soil samples which will span a range of severity and type of oil contamination (fresh versus weathered) which can be used in experiments. It is envisaged that the student will develop a work plan based on a comprehensive literature study on this topic. Laboratory experiments can be used to establish laboratory estimates of the rate of biodegradation which can be combined with microbial community profiling as determined by Illumina amplicon sequencing.
The project is in collaboration with the Shell Technology Centre Amsterdam.
|Fundamental insight in oil-degrading microbial communities using NGS||Experimental (Master)||Paul Iturbe Espinoza
|The IUCN-Niger Delta Panel (IUCN-NDP) was established at the request of Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited (SPDC), to provide science-based recommendations for the remediation and rehabilitation of biodiversity and habitats of oil spill sites in the Niger Delta. Land farming is widely used by SPDC to clear residual oil from spillages to soil in the Niger Delta. This approach reduces the concentration of petroleum constituents present in soils through processes associated with bioremediation. It is proposed by the IUCN that the use of bio surfactants, enzymes and sorbents can improve the effectiveness of this treatment. SPDC is planning to perform comparative pilot scale testing in Nigeria to determine the relative efficacy of the IUCN-NDP recommended remediation agents. It is anticipated that the tests will be performed in fully contained bio cells. The success of soil remediation by land farming is generally dependent on availability of nutrients and oxygen within the system plus the ability to overcome some of the mass transfer issues associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation. Consequently, the effects of oxygen, nutrients mass transfer will also be incorporated into the test plan in order to gain a better understanding of what influences efficient biodegradation in Nigeria soils. The experiment will test the effectiveness of the following factors on remediation success:
Nutrients (Agricultural Fertilizer), (Bio)surfactants, Enzyme products, Natural Sorbents, Tilling (oxygen and mass transfer)
The IUCN have commented that the success of remediation maybe dependent on the composition of the indigenous microbial community within the soil as determined by Illumina amplicon sequencing. Therefore, we would like to understand if and how microbial communities differ during treatment with various forms of remediation agent. The size and scope and specific objectives of the study can be discussed in more detail if you are interested developing a project. The project is in collaboration with the Shell Technology Centre Amsterdam.
|Building a genome scale metabolic model for the fission yeast S. pombe||Theoretical (Master)||Johan van Heerden
Eunice van Pelt-Kleinjan
The two distantly related yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, have been instrumental in our current understanding of the eukaryotic cell and its processes. Much of what we know about the cell cycle and its regulation was borne from pioneering studies with S. pombe, while S. cerevisiae has been a favourite workhorse in studies on eukaryotic metabolism (especially central carbon metabolism) and textbooks on this subject are therefore filled with insights derived from this organism.
While the cell-cycle field has embraced S. cerevisiae as a complementary eukaryotic model, researchers with a focus on metabolism have yet to harvest the potential insights to be gained from systematic (and comparative) studies of S. pombe metabolism. Today, the majority of research on S. pombe is still dedicated to unraveling cell cycle regulation and other cellular functions such as DNA repair, maintenance and aging, with very little fundamental research on the central metabolism of this yeast.
While there are many similarities between these two species, there are also several important differences including: cell morphology, the mode of cell division, the position of cell-size checkpoints during cell-cycle progression, the role of glucose sensors, the ability to respire ethanol, the presence of a glyoxylate cycle and differences in mitochondrial functions.
As many of the differences between these two species pertain to metabolic functions, a better understanding of the metabolic profile of S. pombe should serve to greatly expand our compendium of knowledge on eukaryotic metabolism, beyond that of S. cerevisiae and cancer cell lines.
In this project you will build a new genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM) using software developed in our group, MetaDraft. This will enable the construction of a draft genome-scale model based only on a sequenced genome and a curated database of template models.
You will use this GSMM model to predict the ability of S. pombe to produce biomass (i.e. to grow) on various carbon substrates. These predicitons can then be compared to existing and new experimental data, to improve and validate the model.
It is expected that this work will lead to a functional GSMM that will provide a valuable asset to the burgeoning field of S. pombe metabolic studies.
Duration of project: 5 months
Your CV: Ideally you will have a theoretical background and programming experience (preferably Python or Matlab).
Start date: May 2017 or later.
|How does soluble adenylyl cyclase regulate the Warburg effect in liver cancer cells?||Modelling (Master)||Jurgen Haanstra
j.r.haanstra[at]vu.nl and Bas Teusink
|It is generally established that most cancer cells have a different metabolic programming than primary tissue cells. In general, tumor cells perform “aerobic glycolysis” which means that they metabolize glucose by a high rate of glycolysis and subsequent fermentation into lactate, but with very limited further oxidative metabolism in the citric acid cycle. This phenomenon is called the Warburg effect. Although much research has been dedicated to the Warburg effect and several targets have been proposed, the overall mechanism remains poorly understood.
Colleagues at the AMC/Tijtgat institute have recently found that soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) plays an important regulatory role in the choice for aerobic glycolysis. Although sAC is the evolutionary most ancient adenylyl cyclase in mammals, it has been studied much less intensely than the transmembrane adenyl cyclases which are regulated by G-proteins. In contrast to these, sAC was found to be activated by HCO3- and also by its substrate ATP, which makes sAC an exquisite metabolic sensor.
Inhibition (or knockdown) of sAC in in several cancer cell lines enhances lactate formation and decreases oxidative glucose metabolism, thereby aggravating the Warburg effect. The exact target(s) of sAC in energy metabolism remain to be identified, but its activity affects glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway and glycogen homeostasis.
The goal of this project is to identify possible metabolic targets of sAC action in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 cells. You will do this by using (and expanding) existing kinetic models of HepG2/ hepatocyte metabolism as well as core models of metabolism. With these models you will investigate whether and how metabolic regulation can explain the measured changes in metabolite concentrations after sAC inhibition (or knockdown).
|Can CRISPR evolution be used to trace bacterial pathogens in food? ||Theoretical (Master)||Douwe Molenaar
d.molenaar[at]vu.nl and Indra Bergval (RIVM)
|Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) genes are present in the genomes of many bacteria (~ 40%) and Archaea (~ 90%) and together form an adaptive microbial immune system. A typical CRISPR cassette consists of two or more direct repeat-spacer units, where the spacer sequences are mainly active against foreign DNA, such as bacteriophages and plasmids. If the cell is infected with foreign DNA and it is recognized by the CRISPR-Cas immune system, the foreign DNA is selectively degraded so that it can not be incorporated into the genome. Every time the cell is threatened with new foreign DNA, a new, unique direct repeat-spacer unit is built into the CRISPR cassette. The sequences of a CRISPR array in a bacterial genome are therefore subject to rapid evolution, which offers the possibility to use this system for typing purposes. For some bacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, this happens routinely.
Typing pathogenic bacteria is important because it contributes to the determination of the origin/source in the event of an outbreak, to identification of transmission patterns in long-term epidemics and to the identification of certain characteristics such as virulence or resistance to specific genotypes of a certain pathogen.
In the case of food-related infections, it is particularly important to determine the source of the contamination as quickly as possible, so that targeted and effective measures can be taken or policy can be made if structural infections are involved. The increasing accessibility of whole genome sequencing technologies has made a significant contribution to the possibility of source attribution. To further investigate this information and to see whether we can specify the source attribution, we want to analyse the diversity and evolution of CRISPR arrays in specific food-related bacterial pathogens (Salmonella, Listeria, Shiga-toxin producing E. coli) throughout the food production chain ("farm to fork").
Activities within this project:
You will work closely together with Angela van Hoek, Michael Visser and Indra Bergval at the Centrum voor Infectieziektenbestrijding at RIVM, the dutch authority for control of infectious diseases.
|What are the costs of protein turnover?||Theoretical (Master)||Eunice van Pelt-Kleinjan
External supervisor Berdien van Olst
A cell needs proteins to catalyze reactions. These proteins do not have an indefinite lifetime and are degraded over time. In steady state conditions, the protein level should be constant, so the cell needs to synthesize new proteins to replace the degraded ones. This constant protein production, degradation and renewal is called protein turnover. In addition, the proteins are diluted upon growth, so in steady state, the cell also needs to produce protein during growth. There are many different factors involved in protein production, like transcription and translation. Therefore, turnover rate is expected to be protein specific. We want to find out whether there is a relation between turnover rate and these different factors. Ultimately, we want to know how the costs of protein turnover determine optimal metabolic and growth strategies of bacteria.
We have turnover data of hundreds of proteins of a bacterial strain grown in a chemostat. The data consists of time-series of concentrations of heavy lysine wash-out and light lysine incorporation in proteins. Based on this data we want to calculate the turnover rate of each protein. For this we need to develop a statistical modeling approach. When we have the turnover rates we will analyze them (e.g. are there certain groups of proteins that cluster together because of a similar turnover rate, what does this mean in relation to e.g. their function?). This will improve our understanding of the protein economy in the cell.
|Defining macrophage immunometabolism through omics data analysis|
|Theoretical (Master)||Jan vd Bossche,
Douwe Molenaar d.molenaar[at]vu.nl
|Macrophages are innate immune cells that phagocytose and kill microbes. Although these are key features,
Macrophages are innate immune cell that are functionally very multifaceted and are involved in almost all aspects of life; from immunity and host defense, to homeostasis, tissue repair and development. To fulfil these distinct actions, macrophages adopt a plethora of polarization states. Understanding their regulation and phenotypic heterogeneity is crucial because macrophages are critical in many diseases and have emerged as attractive targets for therapy of cancer, atherosclerosis, asthma and many more “Western” killers.
We recently demonstrated the crucial role of metabolic reprogramming in distinct macrophage activation cues. LPS+IFNg-induced pro-inflammatory “M1” macrophages undergo metabolic rewiring, illustrated by heightened glycolysis. In contrast, IL-4-induced anti-inflammatory “M2” macrophages show and require high mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Thus, the way a macrophage digests its nutrients not only provides energy, but directly dictates its function.
To advance our findings to future therapeutic applications, our current knowledge now needs to be translated to the complex in vivo environment, where macrophages are exposed to a complex mixture of stimuli and don’t classify as M1 or M2. In other words, the metabolic roadmaps of non-M1/M2 macrophage subsets need to be defined in health and disease in both humans and animal models.
In this project you will define the metabolic characteristics of different macrophage subsets using transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics data that are available online and with unique data that we generate(d) ourselves.
Revealing the metabolic characteristics and needs of macrophages will reveal new (metabolic) targets to manipulate macrophage function and to improve disease outcome.
|An optogenetic strategy to control glycolytic enzyme activity||Experimental (Master)||Johan van Heerden
To make the appropriate adaptive decisions or to maintain homeostasis, cells monitor not only extracellular conditions, but also their internal metabolic state. Historically, changes in cellular physiology was considered to occur mainly in response to altered environmental conditions, but recent studies indicate that changes in metabolic fluxes can also trigger adaptations even when environmental conditions are stable. By monitoring changes in the concentrations of so called flux-sensing metabolites, cells can get information about their metabolic state, irrespective of the environmental state.
In microbes such as E. coli and S. cerevisiae, steady-state correlations between growth rate, mode of metabolism (respirations or fermentation) and certain key metabolic intermediates, have been interpreted as evidence for the existence of flux-sensing mechanisms. Particularly interesting is the possible role played by Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP).
FBP concentration correlates strongly with glycolytic flux, and several regulatory targets (allosteric and gene expression) have been described. FBP has therefore been suggested as part of the regulatory repertoire that modulates the physiological state of cells. In addition to FBP, Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) may be another flux-signalling metabolite. PEP mirrors the behaviour of FBP and could therefore serve to reinforce sensing of the central metabolic state.
The regulatory role played by flux-sensing metabolites have been inferred mainly from steady-state correlations, and many questions remain about the role these metabolites play in actually driving the adaptations associated with a specific physiological state and to what extent this is truly independent from the environment.
In this project we will attempt to gain further insight into the causative link between sensing of internal metabolic states and subsequent physiological adaptations to perturbations of the internal state, under constant environmental conditions. We will use an optogenetic strategy to design light-controllable variants of Phosphofructokinase (PFK) and Pyruvate kinase (PYK), which will allow for the dynamic in vivo manipulation of enzyme activities by illumination. Both these enzymes catalyse irreversible steps in glycolysis and changes in their relative activity is expected to impact the concentrations of FBP and PEP, respectively.
Using this novel strategy, we will explore the physiological adaptive responses of (single) cells to changes in their internal metabolic state, even though extracellular conditions remain unchanged.
Aims of the project
This project will have two major aims:
1) To develop light-controllable variants of Phosphofructokinase (PFK) and Pyruvate kinase (PYK), both glycolytic enzymes, using the latest optogenetic technologies
2) To assess the metabolic-adaptive responses of (single) yeast cells to PFK and PYK enzyme activity-levels modulated in real time via optogenetics
6-9 months (preferably 9 months, but the exact duration can be discussed).
This project is a collaboration between the Teusink/Bruggeman group, at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, and the Niopek group, at the University of Heidelberg.
The internship, therefore, offers the successful candidate the unique opportunity to spend time in both Amsterdam (The Netherlands) and Heidelberg (Germany). The first part of the project, the design and construction of light-controllable glycolytic enzymes, will be performed in Heidelberg. It is anticipated that this will take approximately 3-5 months. The second part, characterization and (single) cell experiments, will be completed in Amsterdam, and will take the remaining time 3-4 months.
Please note: The candidate will have to organize accommodation for themselves.
What we are looking for in a candidate
The ideal candidate should be motivated and up for of a challenge. Proven experience with molecular cloning techniques (PCR, digestion, ligation, transformation etc) is required and preferably some experience working with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Experience with single cell measurement techniques, such as microscopy and flow cytometry, is a bonus, but not essential.
|Microbial degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)||Experimental (Master)||Lan Anh Nguyen email@example.com
Rob van Spanning firstname.lastname@example.org
|In the Vietnam War, Agent Orange was extensively used as a defoliant between 1962 and 1971. This herbicide comprises an equal mixture of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T and also contains traces of 2,3,7,8-TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). An estimated more than 45 million kg of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) was sprayed over South Vietnam. Containers with the herbicides were supplied to and stored in Bien Hoa, a former military airbase in southern Dong Nai province. Until today, Bien Hoa is a site with some of the highest levels of herbicides and dioxins in Vietnam. Since these compounds are hazardous to biological life, they need to be removed from the environment.
The objective of this MSc research project is to increase our understanding of natural biodegradation processes involved in 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T degradation. Laboratory experiments will be used to determine 2,4-D- and 2,4,5-T-degrading ability by bacterial communities in time. LC/ MS/ MS (liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometric analyses) will be used to determine concentrations of the herbicides and microbial community profiling will be determined by Illumina amplicon sequencing. In addition, key genes (tfdA and catA) involved in herbicide degradation will be quantified in these succession experiments by qPCR. Results may be of importance in understanding and improvement of bioremediation processes.
- Duration approximately 6 months, starting from September 2018
- MSc Student from Biology, Biological Sciences, Environmental sciences, Molecular Ecology, preferably with some laboratory experience
- Location: Molecular Cell Biology VU Amsterdam and VAST Institute Hanoi, Vietnam
- For more information, contact Lan Anh Nguyen (email@example.com) or Rob van Spanning; (firstname.lastname@example.org)
|The importance of efficiency and redundancy in metabolism||Theoretical (Master)||Daan de Groot
In static environments, the fastest growing microorganisms will be selected by evolution. Since resources are always limited, microbes should make offspring from these resources in the fastest and most efficient manner. Two papers from our group proved that this pressure will lead to the upregulation of only a small number of pathways through the metabolic network. Growth rate maximization will thus lead to a highly ordered metabolism: redundancy and complexity are minimized.
In contrast, in a series of papers, the theoretical ecologist prof. Robert Ulanowicz argued that a minimally complex (ecological) network is maximally unreliable. The professor argues that biology is inherently noisy, and that some redundancy is necessary to cope with unforeseen changes. Maximization of reliability will thus lead to a different metabolism: redundancy and complexity are maximized.
Using information theoretical concepts, Ulanowicz, quantifies the ‘order’ and the ‘redundancy’ in an ecological network, and argues that the two counteracting forces will balance natural networks in an intermediately ordered state.
Goal of the project
We would like to translate the ecological theory of Ulanowicz into a theory about metabolism. Given a metabolic network, and distribution of reaction rates through this network, we want to be able to calculate the order and redundancy. Using different theoretical approaches, we would then like to find out to what level of order the evolutionary pressure pushes cells.
What we expect
This project is very theoretical and somewhat abstract, and will therefore only fit a student with a strong theoretical background, and a seemingly unquenchable curiosity. Skills in Python or related programming languages are a plus, since code should be written to calculate the information theoretical quantities for arbitrary networks.
|Do you want to study microorganisms involved in yogurt production in Copenhagen, Denmark?||Theoretical (Master)||Sebastian Mendoza
The yogurt you eat at home is usually produced from milk using batch cultures of two microorganisms: Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. These microorganisms grow together in a symbiotic way, they consume the nutrients of milk and produce the compounds that make yogurt a food full of texture and flavors. The use of different strains for each of the species results in yogurts with different organoleptic properties. For example, the use of some strains produce yogurt with higher acidity
Goal of the project
The student will work in a joint project between VU Amsterdam and Chr. Hansen, an important company for the dairy industry. The project will develop at Chr Hansen which is located in Copenhagen, Denmark. In particular, the student will use the genomes of different strains as well as the organoleptic properties of the yogurt they produce to cluster the microorganisms in groups of biological and industrial relevance. The student will explore different bioinformatics techniques to cluster the strains and try to get insights about the mechanisms that govern the relationships between metabolism and organoleptic properties. It is expected that each of the clusters contains strains with similar metabolic properties. In this way, the student will be able to shed light into relevant metabolic features for yogurt production.
at least two months
Ideally, you will have a theoretical background and programming experience (preferably Python, R or MATLAB).
March 2019 or later
|Can you predict yoghurt fermentation?||Modelling (Master)||Julia Lischke
|Yoghurt is an important part of nutrition and its fermentation is carried out since centuries. Though, many aspects of the microbial processes are not understood. Mainly because the fermentation needs the action of two or more microorganisms. Computational approaches to predict the influence of two microorganisms on each other are rare and yet to be developed. We use Yogurt as model process to investigate good strategies and validate our new developed computational approaches.
Yogurt fermentation is no continuous process. Once the milk is inoculated the involved Lactic Acid Bacteria can do their job undisturbed. We observed an unsynchronized growth pattern, when the two main organisms ferment the milk to Yoghurt. The aim of this master project is to use the widely accepted dynamic Flux balance analysis and adapt it to reflect and predict the behavior of yogurt producing Lactic Acid Bacteria. Challenges will be, to identify a suitable optimization function and implement a therefore suited algorithm in python to calculate the objective value.
During this project you will learn how to sophistically use linear programming, used not only in biology but also finance and sociology. You will also learn to generalize biological concepts, rephrase it in mathematical terms and implement it. Finally this should lead to an increased fundamental understanding of the cooperativity between yoghurt building microorganisms.
|Multi-omics to unravel interactions in a benzene-degrading microbial consortium||Theoretical/Computational (Master)||Chrats Melkonian
& Rob van Spanning
Benzene is a poisonous compound often found in soils contaminated by fuel hydrocarbons. Because oxygen seemed to be important in benzene degradation, researchers tried to understand the aerobic degradation of this organic compound for over a century. Later, anaerobic benzene degradation by microbial communities was observed. A lot is still to be discovered about the microbial physiology, biochemical pathways and metabolic intermediates involved in anaerobic benzene degradation.
To understand microbial anaerobic benzene degradation we used a microbial community that was fed with benzene and nitrate during 15 years. We initially thought that this community would consist of a few highly specialized species. However, the results showed a diverse community with more than 100 very diverse species.
Goal of the project
To find out how the species divide the labour in this benzene-degrading microbial consortium, and to identify dependencies between the members of the community and different type of microbial interaction.
You will work on a model system that allows you to take one step further and try to address more fundamental questions of microbiology, such as, how is fitness affected by the presence of many species in a microbial community?
i) You will have to use exploratory analysis, statistical modelling and cutting edge data science techniques, as well as tools builded in house for functional analysis of microbial communities on metagenomics and metatranscriptomics.
ii) You will apply the previous tools/techniques in a metagenomics/transcriptomics dataset obtained from the 15 years old chemostat.
From 4 to 6 months
Ideally, you have a data science/bioinformatics background with programming experience (preferably R, Python). Experience in ecology and microbial community research is recommended.
|Back in time with Lactococcus lactis||Theoretical/Computational (Master)||Chrats Melkonian
Herwig Bachmann & Douwe Molenaar
Lactococcus lactis is one of the most important microorganisms used for the fermentation of cheese and buttermilk. Although L. lactis strains can be found both in dairy products and at plant material, the literature suggests that strains of dairy origin have evolved from plant isolates (van Hylckama Vlieg et al., 2006). In this project we want to find out whether humans played a role in the evolution of dairy strains.
The main metabolic activity of L. lactis is the conversion of lactose (milk sugar) to lactate and it is also involved in the formation of flavor volatiles and texture of dairy products. Such chemical changes are initiated by side products of L. Lactis metabolism and include: synthesis of volatile metabolites and exopolysaccharides, as well as proteolytic activity.
In a recent study of 43 genomes of L. lactis strains a long standing disparity about the two subspecies of Lactococus lactis was solved. (Wels, Michiel et al., 2019). The genomes also showed distinct differences between plant and dairy isolates. While suggestions that humans played a role in the evolution of dairy strains has been postulated a while ago the evidence for this hypothesis is not conclusive and needs re-evaluation.
On this project you will try to answer:
i) Did humans play a role in the evolution of L. lactis? Are the phenotypes of L. lactis dairy isolates shaped by human intervention or did dairy isolates evolve in nature and humans merely selected them for their phenotypic properties?
To achieve this, you will perform targeted phylogenetic analysis on genes of interest from a big collection of L. lactis strains. Concepts of the molecular clock will be applied and you will make comparisons with mammalian pathogens and genes specific to the relationship between mammals and microbes. Such comparisons should enable rough estimates of the time when certain strains evolved and what the possible role of humans in the evolution of L. lactis could have been.
From four months to six months
Ideally, you have a bioinformatics background with programming experience (preferably R, Python). Experience in phylogenetics is recommended.
September 2019 (date is flexible)
1) Johan ET van Hylckama Vlieg, et al.,Natural diversity and adaptive responses of Lactococcus lactis, Current Opinion in Biotechnology,Volume 17, Issue 2,2006,Pages 183-190,ISSN 0958-1669,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2006.02.007
2) Wels, Michiel et al. “Comparative Genome Analysis of Lactococcus lactis Indicates Niche Adaptation and Resolves Genotype/Phenotype Disparity.” Frontiers in microbiology vol. 10 4. 31 Jan. 2019, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2019.00004
Internships are in principle open for students from other universities in the Netherlands or outside the Netherlands. We welcome for example ERASMUS students. Please note a few things:
If you are a non-VU student and from abroad you should contact Dr. Rob van Spanning (email@example.com) if you want to do an internship in our group, and indicate your preferred project(s), starting date, length of internship, and how you will support yourself (costs for food, accommodation), as we are unable to support you financially.
VU students and other Dutch students can contact the putative internship supervisor directly. In case of general questions they can contact dr. Jurgen Haanstra (j.r.haanstra[at]vu.nl)